Date Published: 2002-08-26
In the next series of articles we are going to talk about mod_perl performance issues. We will try to look at as many aspects of the mod_perl driven service as possible. Hardware, software, Perl coding and finally the mod_perl specific aspects.
Stas Beckman <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To make the user's Web browsing experience as painless as possible,
every effort must be made to wring the last drop of performance from
the server. There are many factors which affect Web site usability,
but speed is one of the most important. This applies to any webserver,
not just Apache, so it is very important that you understand it.
How do we measure the speed of a server? Since the user (and not the
computer) is the one that interacts with the Web site, one good speed
measurement is the time elapsed between the moment when she clicks on
a link or presses a Submit button to the moment when the resulting
page is fully rendered.
The requests and replies are broken into packets. A request may be
made up of several packets, a reply may be many thousands. Each
packet has to make its own way from one machine to another, perhaps
passing through many interconnection nodes. We must measure the time
starting from when the first packet of the request leaves our user's
machine to when the last packet of the reply arrives back there.
A webserver is only one of the entities the packets see along their
way. If we follow them from browser to server and back again, they
may travel by different routes through many different entities.
Before they are processed by your server the packets might have to go
through proxy (accelerator) servers and if the request contains more
than one packet, packets might arrive to the server by different
routes with different arrival times, therefore it's possible that some
packets that arrive earlier will have to wait for other packets before
they could be reassembled into a chunk of the request message that
will be then read by the server. Then the whole process is repeated
You could work hard to fine tune your webserver's performance, but a
slow Network Interface Card (NIC) or a slow network connection from
your server might defeat it all. That's why it's important to think
about the Big Picture and to be aware of possible bottlenecks between
the server and the Web.
Of course there is little that you can do if the user has a slow
connection. You might tune your scripts and webserver to process
incoming requests ultra quickly, so you will need only a small number
of working servers, but you might find that the server processes are
all busy waiting for slow clients to accept their responses.
But there are techniques to cope with this. For example you can
deliver the respond after it was compressed. If you are delivering a
pure text respond--gzip compression will sometimes reduce the size of
the respond by 10 times.
You should analyze all the involved components when you try to create
the best service for your users, and not the web server or the code
that the web server executes. A Web service is like a car, if one of
the parts or mechanisms is broken the car may not go smoothly and it
can even stop dead if pushed too far without first fixing it.
And let me stress it again--if you want to have a success in the web
service business you should start worrying about the client's browsing
experience and not only how good your code benchmarks are.
Before you start to optimize server configuration and learn to write a
more efficient code you need to consider the demands which will be
placed on the Hardware and the Operating System. There is no point in
investing a lot of time and money in configuration tuning and code
optimizing only to find that your server's performance is poor because
you did not choose a suitable platform in the first place.
Because hardware platforms and operating systems are developing
rapidly (even while you are reading this article), the following
advisory discussion must be in general terms, without mentioning
specific vendors names.
I will try to talk about what characteristics and features you should
be looking for to support a mod_perl enabled Apache server, then when
you know what you want from your OS, you can go out and find it.
Visit the Web sites of the operating systems you are interested in.
You can gauge user's opinions by searching the relevant discussions in
newsgroup and mailing list archives. Deja - http://deja.com and
eGroups - http://egroups.com are good examples. I will leave this fan
research to you. But probably the best shot will be to ask mod_perl
users, they know the best.
Probably the most important features in an OS are stability and
robustness. You are in an Internet business. You do not keep normal
9am to 5pm working hours like many conventional businesses you know.
You are open 24 hours a day. You cannot afford to be off-line, for
your customers will go shop at another service like yours (unless you
have a monopoly :). If the OS of your choice crashes every day, first
do a little investigation. There might be a simple reason which you
can find and fix. There are OSs which won't work unless you reboot
them twice a day. You don't want to use the OS of this kind, no
matter how good the OS' vendor sales department. Do not follow flushy
advertisements, follow developers advises instead.
Generally, people who have used the OS for some time can tell you a
lot about its stability. Ask them. Try to find people who are doing
similar things to what you are planning to do, they may even be using
the same software. There are often compatibility issues to resolve.
You may need to become familiar with patching and compiling your OS.
You want an OS with a good memory management implementations. Some OSs
are well known as memory hogs. The same code can use twice as much
memory on one OS compared to another. If the size of the mod_perl
process is 10Mb and you have tens of these running, it definitely adds
Some OSs and/or their libraries (e.g. C runtime libraries) suffer from
memory leaks. A leak is when some process requests a chunk of memory
for temporary storage, but then does not subsequently release it. The
chunk of memory is not then available for any purpose until the
process which requested it dies. You cannot afford such leaks. A
single mod_perl process sometimes serves thousands of requests before
it terminates. So if a leak occurs on every request, the memory
demands could become huge. Of course your code can be the cause of
the memory leaks as well, but it's easy to detect and solve.
Certainly, we can reduce the number of requests to be served over the
process' life, but that can degrade performance.
You want an OS with good memory sharing capabilities. If you preload
the Perl modules and scripts at server startup, they are shared
between the spawned children (at least for a part of a process' life -
memory pages can become ``dirty'' and cease to be shared). This feature
can reduce memory consumption a lot!
And of course you don't want an OS that doesn't have memory sharing
If you are in a big business you probably do not mind paying another
$1000 for some fancy OS with bundled support. But if your resources
are low, you will look for cheaper and free OSs. Free does not mean
bad, it can be quite the opposite. Free OSs can have the best support
you can find. Some do.
It is very easy to understand - most of the people are not rich and
will try to use a cheaper or free OS first if it does the work for
them. Since it really fits their needs, many people keep using it and
eventually know it well enough to be able to provide support for
others in trouble. Why would they do this for free? One reason is
for the spirit of the first days of the Internet, when there was no
commercial Internet and people helped each other, because someone
helped them in first place. I was there, I was touched by that spirit
and I'm keen to keep that spirit alive.
But, let's get back to our world. We are living in material world,
and our bosses pay us to keep the systems running. So if you feel
that you cannot provide the support yourself and you do not trust the
available free resources, you must pay for an OS backed by a company,
and blame them for any problem. Your boss wants to be able to sue
someone if the project has a problem caused by the external product
that is being used in the project. If you buy a product and the
company selling it claims support, you have someone to sue or at least
to put the blame on.
If we go with Open Source and it fails we do not have someone to
sue... wrong--in the last years many companies have realized how good
the Open Source products are and started to provide an official
support for these products. So your boss cannot just dismiss your
suggestion of using an Open Source Operating System. You can get a
paid support just like with any other commercial OS vendor.
Also remember that the less money you spend on OS and Software, the
more you will be able to spend on faster and stronger hardware. Of
course for some companies money is a non-issue, but there are many
companies for which it is a big issue.
The OSs in this hazard group tend to be developed by a single company
You might find yourself in a position where you have invested a lot of
time and money into developing some proprietary software that is
bundled with the OS you chose (say writing a mod_perl handler which
takes advantage of some proprietary features of the OS and which will
not run on any other OS). Things are under control, the performance
is great and you sing with happiness on your way to work. Then, one
day, the company which supplies your beloved OS goes bankrupt (not
unlikely nowadays), or they produce a newer incompatible version and
they will not support the old one (happens all the time). You are
stuck with their early masterpiece, no support and no source code!
What are you going to do? Invest more money into porting the software
to another OS...
Free and Open Source OSs are probably less susceptible to this kind of
problem. Development is usually distributed between many companies
and developers, so if a person who developed a really important part
of the kernel lost interest in continuing, someone else will pick the
falling flag and carry on. Of course if tomorrow some better project
shows up, developers might migrate there and finally drop the
development: but in practice people are often given support on older
versions and helped to migrate to current versions. Development tends
to be more incremental than revolutionary, so upgrades are less
traumatic, and there is usually plenty of notice of the forthcoming
changes so that you have time to plan for them.
Of course with the Open Source OSs you can have the source code! So
you can always have a go yourself, but do not under-estimate the
amounts of work involved. There are many, many man-years of work in
Actively developed OSs generally try to keep pace with the latest
technology developments, and continually optimize the kernel and other
parts of the OS to become better and faster. Nowadays, Internet and
networking in general are the hottest topics for system developers.
Sometimes a simple OS upgrade to the latest stable version can save
you an expensive hardware upgrade. Also, remember that when you buy
new hardware, chances are that the latest software will make the most
If a new product supports an old one by virtue of backwards
compatibility with previous products of the same family, you might not
reap all the benefits of the new product's features. Perhaps you get
almost the same functionality for much less money if you were to buy
an older model of the same product.
Sometimes the most expensive machine is not the one which provides the
best performance. Your demands on the platform hardware are based on
many aspects and affect many components. Let's discuss some of them.
In the discussion I use terms that may be unfamiliar to you:
Cluster: a group of machines connected together to perform one big
or many small computational tasks in a reasonable time. Clustering
can also be used to provide 'fail-over' where if one machine fails its
processes are transferred to another without interruption of service.
And you may be able to take one of the machines down for maintenance
(or an upgrade) and keep your service running--the main server will
simply not dispatch the requests to the machine that was taken down.
Load balancing: users are given the name of one of your machines
but perhaps it cannot stand the heavy load. You can use a clustering
approach to distribute the load over a number of machines. The
central server, which users access initially when they type the name
of your service, works as a dispatcher. It just redirects requests to
other machines. Sometimes the central server also collects the
results and returns them to the users. You can get the advantages of
Network Interface Card (NIC): A hardware component that allows to
connect your machine to the network. It performs packets sending and
receiving, newer cards can encrypt and decrypt packets and perform
digital signing and verifying of the such. These are coming in
different speeds categories varying from 10Mbps to 10Gbps and
faster. The most used type of the NIC card is the one that implements
the Ethernet networking protocol.
Random Access Memory (RAM): It's the memory that you have in your
computer. (Comes in units of 8Mb, 16Mb, 64Mb, 256Mb, etc.)
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID): An array of physical
disks, usually treated by the operating system as one single disk, and
often forced to appear that way by the hardware. The reason for using
RAID is often simply to achieve a high data transfer rate, but it may
also be to get adequate disk capacity or high reliability. Redundancy
means that the system is capable of continued operation even if a disk
fails. There are various types of RAID array and several different
approaches to implementing them. Some systems provide protection
against failure of more than one drive and some (`hot-swappable')
systems allow a drive to be replaced without even stopping the OS.
If you are building a fan site and you want to amaze your friends with
a mod_perl guest book, any old 486 machine could do it. If you are in
a serious business, it is very important to build a scalable server.
If your service is successful and becomes popular, the traffic could
double every few days, and you should be ready to add more resources
to keep up with the demand. While we can define the webserver
scalability more precisely, the important thing is to make sure that
you can add more power to your
webserver(s) without investing much
additional money in software development (you will need a little
software effort to connect your servers, if you add more of them).
This means that you should choose hardware and OSs that can talk to
other machines and become a part of a cluster.
On the other hand if you prepare for a lot of traffic and buy a
monster to do the work for you, what happens if your service doesn't
prove to be as successful as you thought it would be? Then you've
spent too much money, and meanwhile faster processors and other
hardware components have been released, so you lose.
Wisdom and prophecy, that's all it takes :)
Let's start with a claim that a four years old processor is still very
powerful and can be put to a good use. Now let's say that for a given
amount of money you can probably buy either one new very strong
machine or about ten older but very cheap machines. I claim that with
ten old machines connected into a cluster and by deploying load
balancing you will be able to serve about five times more requests
than with one single new machine.
Why is that? Because generally the performance improvement on a new
machine is marginal while the price is much higher. Ten machines will
do faster disk I/O than one single machine, even if the new disk is
quite a bit faster. Yes, you have more administration overhead, but
there is a chance you will have it anyway, for in a short time the new
machine you have just bought might not stand the load. Then you will
have to purchase more equipment and think about how to implement load
balancing and web server file system distribution anyway.
Why I am so convinced? Look at the busiest services on the Internet:
search engines, web-email servers and the like -- most of them use a
clustering approach. You may not always notice it, because they hide
the real implementation details behind proxy servers.
You have the best hardware you can get, but the service is still
crawling. Make sure you have a fast Internet connection. Not as fast
as your ISP claims it to be, but fast as it should be. The ISP might
have a very good connection to the Internet, but put many clients on
the same line. If these are heavy clients, your traffic will have to
share the same line and your throughput will suffer. Think about a
dedicated connection and make sure it is truly dedicated. Don't trust
the ISP, check it!
The idea of having a connection to The Internet is a little
misleading. Many Web hosting and co-location companies have large
amounts of bandwidth, but still have poor connectivity. The public
exchanges, such as MAE-East and MAE-West, frequently become
overloaded, yet many ISPs depend on these exchanges.
Private peering means that providers can exchange traffic much
Also, if your Web site is of global interest, check that the ISP has
good global connectivity. If the Web site is going to be visited
mostly by people in a certain country or region, your server should
probably be located there.
Bad connectivity can directly influence your machine's performance.
Here is a story one of the developers told on the mod_perl mailing
What relationship has 10% packet loss on one upstream provider got to
do with machine memory ?
Yes.. a lot. For a nightmare week, the box was located downstream of a
provider who was struggling with some serious bandwidth problems of
his own... people were connecting to the site via this link, and
packet loss was such that retransmits and TCP stalls were keeping
httpd heavies around for much longer than normal.. instead of blasting
out the data at high or even modem speeds, they would be stuck at
1k/sec or stalled out... people would press stop and refresh, httpds
would take 300 seconds to timeout on writes to no-one.. it was a
nightmare. Those problems didn't go away till I moved the box to a
place closer to some decent backbones.
Note that with a proxy, this only keeps a lightweight httpd tied up,
assuming the page is small enough to fit in the buffers. If you are a
busy internet site you always have some slow clients. This is a
difficult thing to simulate in benchmark testing, though.
If your service is I/O bound (does a lot of read/write operations to
disk) you need a very fast disk, especially if the you need a
relational database, which are the main I/O stream creators. So you
should not spend the money on Video card and monitor! A cheap card
and a 14`` monochrome monitor are perfectly adequate for a Web server,
you will probably access it by
ssh most of the time.
Look for disks with the best price/performance ratio. Of course, ask
around and avoid disks that have a reputation for head-crashes and
You must think about RAID or similar systems if you have an enormous
data set to serve (what is an enormous data set nowadays? Gigabytes,
terabytes?) or you expect a really big web traffic.
Ok, you have a fast disk, what's next? You need a fast disk
controller. There may be one embedded on your computer's motherboard.
If the controller is not fast enough you should buy a faster one.
Don't forget that it may be necessary to disable the original
How much RAM do you need? Nowadays, chances are that you will
hear: ``Memory is cheap, the more you buy the better''. But how much is
enough? The answer is pretty straightforward: you do not want your
machine to swap. When the CPU needs to write something into memory,
but memory is already full, it takes the least frequently used memory
pages and swaps them out to disk. This means you have to bear the
time penalty of writing the data to disk. If another process then
references some of the data which happens to be on one of the pages
that has just been swapped out, the CPU swaps it back in again,
probably swapping out some other data that will be needed very shortly
by some other process. Carried to the extreme, the CPU and disk start
to thrash hopelessly in circles, without getting any real work
done. The less RAM there is, the more often this scenario arises.
Worse, you can exhaust swap space as well, and then your troubles
How do you make a decision? You know the highest rate at which your
server expects to serve pages and how long it takes on average to
serve one. Now you can calculate how many server processes you need.
If you know the maximum size your servers can grow to, you know how
much memory you need. If your OS supports memory sharing, you can
make best use of this feature by preloading the modules and scripts at
server startup, and so you will need less memory than you have
Do not forget that other essential system processes need memory as
well, so you should plan not only for the Web server, but also take
into account the other players. Remember that requests can be queued,
so you can afford to let your client wait for a few moments until a
server is available to serve it. Most of the time your server will
not have the maximum load, but you should be ready to bear the peaks.
You need to reserve at least 20% of free memory for peak situations.
Many sites have crashed a few moments after a big scoop about them was
posted and an unexpected number of requests suddenly came in. (Like
Slashdot effect.) If you are about to announce something cool, be
aware of the possible consequences.
Make sure that the CPU is operating within its specifications. Many
boxes are shipped with incorrect settings for CPU clock speed, power
supply voltage etc. Sometimes a cooling fan is not fitted. It may be
ineffective because a cable assembly fouls the fan blades. Like
faulty RAM, an overheating processor can cause all kinds of strange
and unpredictable things to happen. Some CPUs are known to have bugs
which can be serious in certain circumstances. Try not to get one of
You might use the most expensive components, but still get bad
performance. Why? Let me introduce an annoying word: bottleneck.
A machine is an aggregate of many components. Almost any one of them
may become a bottleneck.
If you have a fast processor but a small amount of RAM, the RAM will
probably be the bottleneck. The processor will be under-utilized,
usually it will be waiting for the kernel to swap the memory pages in
and out, because memory is too small to hold the busiest pages.
If you have a lot of memory, a fast processor, a fast disk, but a slow
disk controller, the disk controller will be the bottleneck. The
performance will still be bad, and you will have wasted money.
A slow NIC can cause a bottleneck as well and make the whole service
running slow. This is a most important component, since webservers
are much more often network-bound than they are disk-bound
(i.e. having more network traffic than disk utilization)
It may happen that the combination of software components which you
find yourself using gives rise to conflicting requirements for the
optimization of tuning parameters. If you can separate the components
onto different machines you may find that this approach (a kind of
clustering) solves the problem, at much less cost than buying faster
hardware, because you can tune the machines individually to suit the
tasks they should perform.
For example if you need to run a relational database engine and
mod_perl server, it can be wise to put the two on different machines,
since while RDBMS need a very fast disk, mod_perl processes need lots
of memory. So by placing the two on different machines it's easy to
optimize each machine at separate and satisfy the each software
components requirements in the best way.